A permanent cosmetic body modification that uses scar tissue produced by the body to form designs or patterns in the skin. Scars are most often formed by cutting the skin and introducing clay or ash into the wounds so they produce raised welts known as keloids. Scarification has been practiced historically in North America, Africa, Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, and Borneo. Web resource here.

Screen Shot 2014-12-29 at 7.50.34 PMCrowned Head of a Ruler from Ife. Copper alloy. 14th-early 15th century. Museum of Ife Antiquities, Ife, Nigeria.